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World Founders of Institutions and Movements
April 27 2024

World Founders of Institutions and Movements

Questions on Founders are common in a lot of competitive exams. Usually, you can expect general questions on their names, establishment date, beliefs, and aims. We shall cover all this in today’s article, so read on to know more about the founder of various Institutions and Movements.


Here's a list of the founders of famous Institutions and Movements:

1) United Nations

  • Founder: Joseph Stalin (USSR), Winston Churchill (UK) and Franklin Delano Roosevelt (USA)
  • Established: October 24, 1945
  • Headquarters: Manhattan, New York City, U.S.A
The United Nations was established by representatives from 50 countries after World War II as a global peacekeeping organization and a panel for resolving disputes between nations. The UN replaced the ineffectual League of Nations, which had failed to prevent the mutiny of World War II. The UN Charter was drafted with an emphasis on peace, security, international law, economic growth, and human rights.
With the influence of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who shared an idea for the postwar world. In 1941, the two leaders drafted the Atlantic Charter, which declared that there would be no provincial aggrandizement, cooperative international relations and state disputes would be resolved through amicable negotiation.

2) Red Cross

  • Founder: Jean-Henri Dunant
  • Established: 1863
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

The Red Cross was founded during the time of the French-Sardinian-Austrian war. In 1859, within this atmosphere of great violence and barbarity, the Swiss businessman Jean Henri Dunant, on his way to a meeting with Napoléon, lead to help and tend to those who had perished and were wounded.

The prime motto of the International Committee of the Red Cross was Inter Arma Caritas (“In War, Charity”). It strives to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilizing the power of humanity.


3) Boy Scouts

  • Founder: Baden Powell
  • Established: 1907 (Brownsea Island Scout Camp)
  • Headquarters: Texas, USA.
  • Boy Scouts Movement: While Baden Powell did write "Scouting for Boys" in 1908, the official founding of the Boy Scouts movement is generally credited as 1907. This is because he held a scouting camp on Brownsea Island in 1907, which is seen as the kickstart for the movement.

Boy Scouts is an organization that was founded originally for boys from 11 to 14 or 15 years of age, that aimed to develop in them good citizenship, chivalrous behavior, and skill in various outdoor activities. He wrote a book called Scouting for Boys (1908). The motto of Boy Scouts is “Be Prepared”.

4) Y.M.C.A

  • Founder: Sir George Williams
  • Established: 6 June 1844
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland

YMCA stands for Young Men’s Christian Association. It is an organization that emphasizes its purpose “to put Christian principles into practice,” as taught by Jesus Christ. It uses a holistic approach to individual and social development encompassing spiritual, intellectual, and physical methods.

This approach is symbolized by the inverse red triangle used by YMCAs around the world representing the YMCA mission of building a healthy spirit, mind, and body.


5) Kindergarten

Founder: Friedrich Fröbel


  • Kindergarten Concept: 1840 (when Fröbel renamed his institute Kindergarten)
  • Play and Activity Institute: 1837 (This is technically the first iteration of what would become kindergartens)

Friedrich Fröbel opened a “play and activity” institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg as an experimental social experience for children entering school. He renamed his institute Kindergarten (meaning garden of children) on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished “like plants in a garden”. 

Fröbel thus introduced an educational environment into his school, in contrast to other earlier infant establishments, and is therefore credited with the creation of kindergartens.


6) Lion’s Club

  • Founder: Melvin Jones
  • Established: October 24, 1916
  • Headquarters: Oak Brook, Illinois, USA

The mission of the club is to empower volunteers to serve their communities, meet humanitarian needs, encourage peace, and promote international understanding through Lions clubs. The motto of Lion’s Club is “We Serve”.


7) Salvation Army

  • Founder: William Booth
  • Established: 1865 
  • Location: East End of London
  • Headquarters: London, England

In the East End of London, revivalist preacher William Booth and his wife Catherine establish the Christian Mission, later known as the Salvation Army.

It is recognized throughout the world for its humanitarian work, thrift shops and red donation kettles, the Salvation Army is an evangelical Christian church. Its mission is to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ while helping others without discrimination.


8) Nursing System

  • Founder: Florence Nightingale
  • Established: 1860 

Florence Nightingale is a known legend in the nursing profession. No single person has contributed more to the field than she. Her work saved countless lives in the Crimean War and captured the world’s attention in the mid-1800s.


9) Fascism

  • Founder: Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini upon being expelled from his position as chief editor of the PSI’s newspaper “Avanti!” for his anti-German stance, joined the interventionist cause in a separate fascio. The term “Fascism” was first used in 1915 by members of Mussolini’s movement.

Fascism is a form of a right-wing government that is a type of one-party dictatorship. They work for a totalitarian one-party state. This aim is to prepare the nation for armed conflict and to respond to economic difficulties. Fascism puts nation and often race above the individual.


10) Protestant Religion

  • Founder: Martin Luther
  • Established: 1517
  • Headquarters: Nordic countries and United Kingdom

Protestantism, the movement that began in northern Europe in the early 16th century as a reaction to medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices.

Along with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, Protestantism became one of three major forces in Christianity.


11) Nazism

  • Founder: Adolf Hitler
  • Established: 24 February 1920
  • Headquarters: Germany

Nazism in full National Socialism, German Nationalsozialismus, totalitarian movement led by Adolf Hitler as head of the Nazi Party in Germany. In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, Nazism shared many elements with Italian fascism.

However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas and in its practice. The Nazi Party was dissolved on 10 October 1945


12) Montessori System

  • Founder: Maria Montessori
  • Established: January 6, 1907
  • Headquarters: Berlin 

The Montessori was created to provide education to low-income children in Rome. Instead of using traditional teaching methods, Maria Montessori began testing her own child-centered educational theories in the classroom.


13) Cubism

  • Founder: Pablo Picasso
  • Established: 1970

Cubism is an artistic movement, created by Pablo Picasso, which employs geometric shapes in depictions of humans and other forms. Over time, the geometric touches grew so intense that they sometimes overtook the represented forms, creating a more pure level of visual abstraction.

Cubism influenced many creative disciplines and continues to inform experimental work.


14) Amnesty International 

  • Founder: Peter Berenson
  • Established: July 1961
  • Headquarters: London

Amnesty International believes that every person has human rights and human rights cannot be divided, human rights will not be protected by governments alone, thus to protect human rights, people must help other people, and to defend human rights, an organization must be independent and impartial.

Their motto is “It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness“.

Also read: List of National parks in India



1) Jainism

  • Founder: Vardhamana Mahavira
  • Established: 500 B. C.

Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation. The essence of Jainism is concerned for the welfare of every being in the universe and for the health of the universe itself.

Lord Mahavir was the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of the Jain religion and is considered as their God.


2) Taoism

  • Founder: Laozi (Lao Tzu)
  • Established: 500 to 400 BCE

Taoism is a philosophical and religious tradition of Chinese origin. Their belief system is based on living the Tao, a concept that is difficult to describe and has different meanings but is typically translated as the “way” or “path.” The Yin-Yang is the symbol of Taoism.

It can be thought of as complementary forces that interact to form a dynamic system in which the whole is greater than the assembled parts. According to this philosophy, everything has both yin and yang aspects (for instance, a shadow cannot exist without light).


3) Bahaism

  • Founder: Mirza Hussain Ali
  • Established: 1863

Bahaism is a religion founded in Iran in 1863; emphasizes the spiritual unity of all humankind; and incorporates Christian and Islamic tenets. The religion teaches the essential worth of all religions and the unity of all people


4) Confucianism

  • Founder: Confucius
  • Established: 551-479 BC

The Confucianists believe that human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor, especially self-cultivation and self-creation.

Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue in a morally organized world.


5) Sikhism

  • Founder: Guru Nanak
  • Established: 1500 CE

Sikhs believe in one God who guides and protects them. They believe everyone is equal before God.

Sikhs believe that your actions are important and you should lead a good life. Sikhs wear five symbols – called the five Ks. They are Kara, Kachera, Kirpan, Khalsa, Kesh, and Kanga


6) Zoroastrianism

  • Founder: Zoroaster
  • Established: 6th or 7th century BCE

The Parsis believe in the existence of one invisible God. They believe that there is a continuous war between the good forces (forces of light) and the evil forces (forces of darkness).

The good forces will win if people will do good deeds think good and speak well.


7) Bhoodan Movement

  • Founder: Gandhian Vinoba Bhave
  • Established: 1951

The Bhoodan Movement attempted to persuade wealthy landowners to voluntarily give a percentage of their land to landless people. But the movement was infiltrated by vested interests, frustrated politicians, and uncommitted volunteers, and was never taken seriously by the bureaucracy or even the likely beneficiaries. 

The existing land settlement, reforms, or revenue systems were in a mess.


8) Sarvodaya Movement

  • Founder: The Sarvodaya Movement was initiated by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Established: The movement's roots can be traced back to Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence and social upliftment during the Indian independence struggle. However, it wasn't a formally established organization with a specific date.
  • Jaya Prakash Narayan's Role: Jayaprakash Narayan was a prominent leader who championed the ideals of Sarvodaya after Gandhi's passing. He played a vital role in carrying forward the movement's goals.

Sarvodaya implies the welfare of all the citizens and the society as a whole. It aims at the moral and material upliftment of the rich and poor, respectively.

It treats all human beings in a similar manner, be they white or black, peasants or princes, Hindus or Muslims, touchable or untouchables, forward class or the backward class, saints or sin­ners. This theory reflects a mix of Gandhian and socialist philosophies, and spiritualism as well as materialism.


9) Servants of Indian Society

  • Founder: Gopalakrishna Gokhale
  • Established: June 12, 1905

The sole aim of Servants of Indian Society was to unite and train Indians of different ethnicities and religions in welfare work.

It was the first secular organization in that country to devote itself to the underprivileged, rural and tribal people, and other social causes.

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Anisha Mukhija

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